See Also: (AGreenRoad) – Video: Depleted Uranium (DU) Dangers And Effects On The Human Body – View Here
(AGreenRoad) – In this blog, we will explore how dangerous plutonium is for you and your family. We will also explore what happened at Fukushima, in relation to plutonium nano particle releases, since this is NOT being covered in the mass media.
LINK TV, Oct. 21 — Dr. Helen Caldicott appeared on the LINK TV program Earth Focus to discuss the Fukushima crisis and other nuclear issues. Her expertise is listed below. http://www.linktv.org/video/6986/dr-helen-caldicott-on-fukushima-and-the-perils-of-nuclear-power
Dr. Helen Caldicott MD received her medical degree from the University of Adelaide Medical School. In 1977 she joined the staff of the Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Boston, and taught pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School from 1977 to 1978. She worked to establish the group International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/If_You_Love_This_Planet
[Rough Transcript of Video Above By Dr. Caldicott]
The problem with plutonium studies is that they did not seem to focus on ANY children. According to Dr Caldicott, children are 20 TIMES more sensitive to radiation than adults. This makes all of the studies on adults worthless, because none of the adult studies can be applied to children or babies, much less a fetus.
According to Dr. Caldicott, in a normal fetus a tiny particle of plutonium can lodge in the brain while it is developing. In a fetus, plutonium can and WILL destroy the genetic material that will develop into the right brain for example.
Plutonium has extreme teratogenasis, meaning it has severe and negative effects on eggs, sperm and developing fetuses.
For this reason, pro nuclear industry supporters will NEVER show or do studies around how plutonium affects a human fetus, babies or children, because it would be too bad for their public relations campaign and they KNOW what results they would get if they somehow could get permission to let infants or babies inhale plutonium dust. I doubt very much that such a study could even be carried out, because the results around animals indicate 100% mortality.
According to Dr Caldicott MD, plutonium has an affinity for the testicles in men, and lodges next to the sperm production area of the male reproductive system, destroying or damaging the genetic structure of the sperm, which then produces defective human babies. Plutonium is mutagenetic.
She reports it can take up to twenty generations for recessive genetic tendencies to express themselves, so the danger of plutonium is not just focused on this present generation which is exposed to this deadly substance.
We also have to ask at what dose will plutonium breathed in or lodged into a place where it is either next to or inside of a human egg or sperm, where it can and will cause the genetic damage of a sperm or egg. One .5 microgram amount of plutonium is small enough to fit inside of a cell, or in between cells, where it can cause lifelong suffering or death of a fetus, baby or later on in life from some genetic disease (pick one of 2,600). This serves as a quick view into the nano world of plutonium, so now let’s dive in deeper and explore this subject in some detail.
HOW DANGEROUS ARE NANO SIZED ‘HOT” PARTICLES OF PLUTONIUM?
So how much plutonium does it take to cause a cancer? “In 1944, J. Robert Oppenheimer concluded: Interpretation of Dr. Hamilton’s data on rats in terms of humans indicates that 50-100 micrograms of plutonium [3.3-6.6 uCi Pu-239] in the skeletal system is the lethal dose. Calculations of the dangerous dose of plutonium in lung tissue leads to answers between 0.5-5.0 micrograms [.033-.33 uCi of Pu-239] depending on the assumptions which have been made. [Oppenheimer to Hempelman, August 16, 1944] http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet7/brief7/tab_g/br7g
However, Robley Evans had concluded by 1944 that data extrapolated from rats to humans was unreliable because rats could tolerate higher rates of radium than humans. (R. Evans, Amer J Roentgen and Rad Ther LII, October 1944) Evans subsequently focused on retrospective studies of radium dial painters.”
So if the fatal doses for humans from plutonium are lower than what has been discussed between researchers above, how much lower are they than .5 micrograms?
Let us start with .5 MICROGRAMS dose and explore that a bit. How can we visualize .5 of a Microgram, which is MUCH smaller than a MILLIGRAM, and MUCH, MUCH smaller than a Gram? Let’s start down the scale of measurements to get some idea of how small a Microgram is.
1 teaspoon is 5 grams and it is also 500 milligrams
500mg equals .10 of a teaspoon
500 Micrograms = .5 milligram
100 micrograms = 0.1 milligrams
.5 micrograms = 0.0005 milligrams
1 microgram also = 0.000000035 ounce, and it also equals I MICRON
1 mi·cro·gram = a unit of mass or weight equal to one millionth of a gram. This measurement unit is used chiefly in microchemistry. The Symbol: ?g stands for 1 microgram, or 1 micron .(This term is often used in nanotechnology, in air pollution laws/rules, as well as in research about radioactive dusts and gases released from nuclear accidents. )
So now that we know that this size of nano particle is very small, let’s find out just how dangerous nano particles are, without plutonium being involved in this at all.
“The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), many health professionals, and, of course, the Hamilton County Department of Environmental Services are all very concerned about particulate pollution. In fact, the concern about particulates is related to their very small size.
Since the late 1970’s, we only monitored particulate matter pollution that was 10 microns in diameter or less, called PM 10. A micron (or 1 micrometer) is a millionth of a meter. To give you an idea of how small PM 10 is, the dot above the letter “i” in a typical newspaper measures about 400 microns! http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
PM 10 particles are small enough to be inhaled and accumulate in the respiratory system. In the last decade, health studies indicated that particles even smaller than PM 10 can cause even more health problems! Now, in addition to monitoring PM 10, scientists and technicians monitor fine particles called PM 2.5, these particles measure 2.5 microns in diameter or smaller, or about 1/10,000 of an inch. These tiny particles are about 30 times smaller than the width of a hair on your head! These tiny particles are small enough to get inhaled past our defensive nose hairs and into our lungs. But it doesn’t stop there! PM 2.5 can pass from our lungs into our blood supply and be carried throughout our bodies.” http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
This is an important point… A .5 micron size dust particle is also equal to a .5 micrometer dust particle of plutonium. The EPA said that this size of particle is dangerous, because it is small enough to get into the lungs, and then go directly into the bloodstream from there, bypassing the filters in the nose and sinuses and avoiding the mucus that normally protects us from larger dust particles.
“As you have just found out in the section above, some tiny pieces of particulate matter, PM 2.5, are small enough to pass from our lungs to our bloodstream”, such as the .5 micron size particle of plutonium. http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
A small particle (we are not even talking about plutonium or other radioactive substance) inhaled into the lungs with normal breathing either inside or outside the house, “can alter the body’s defense systems against foreign materials, damage lung tissues, aggravate existing respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and can lead to cancer. In some cases, PM exposure can even lead to premature death. Adverse health effects have been associated with exposures to PM over both short periods (such as a day) and longer periods (a year or more). The people who are most at risk are people with asthma, influenza, lung, heart, or cardiovascular disease, the elderly, and children.” http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
WHY ARE NANO PARTICLES SO DANGEROUS?
“The human immune system developed in a time and environment where dust was made of large particles. Humans have developed a means of protecting themselves against these large particles. Particles larger than 10 microns generally get caught in the nose and throat, never making it as far as the lungs. Unfortunately, more recent human activity has created many particles that are much smaller, which can make it past our natural defenses, and can enter our systems.
This is why particles smaller than 10 microns are often called “inhaleable particulates” and are regulated by the USEPA. Particles that are smaller than 5 microns can get into the bronchial tubes and the top of the lungs. Particles smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter can get into the deepest portion of the lungs where the gas exchange occurs between the air and blood stream. These are the dangerous particles because the body has no efficient mechanisms for removing them. (You can also imagine what happens if even .5 of one micron sized nano particle of toxic and radioactive plutonium gets down into this region, can’t you?)
New studies have shown that there is an 18% increase in deaths from heart disease among people with long term exposure to particulate matter. “It’s very different from what we thought previously,” said professor and epidemiologist Arden Pope of Brigham Young University, who led the study. While exposure clearly impacts the lungs, “long-term, chronic exposure to air pollution seems to manifest more in cardiovascular disease than it does in respiratory disease.”
This study shows the biological mechanism by which long-term exposure to tiny-particle pollution can actually lead to ischemic heart disease, which causes heart attacks, as well as irregular heart rhythms, heart failure and cardiac arrest. The key is inflammation, Pope said. While strong bouts of pollution can make breathing hard and increase respiratory problems, they also provoke low-grade pulmonary inflammation, accelerating the development of atherosclerosis – a leading cause of heart disease – and altering heart function.” http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
So what have we learned so far? We have learned that small nano sized particles of human made pollution are hazardous to health, and can cause serious illnesses and death without even talking about radiation or heavy metal toxins such as plutonium or uranium for example.
So let us explore, again without even getting into radioactive substances released from reactor accidents, what effect small nano particles have when they are concentrated in one place…
AIR QUALITY INDEX
The Air Quality Index (AQI) for particulate matter provides information on the health effects of different levels of particulate in the air.
Air Quality Index (AQI): Particulate Matter (PM)
This is what you will see on the nightly news.. the reporter will talk about these numbers and tell you to stay inside or that it is OK to come outside and work/play.
101 – 150
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly, and children should limit prolonged exertion.
People with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should limit outdoor exertion.
151 – 200
People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly, and children should avoid prolonged exertion; everyone else should limit prolonged exertion.
People with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should avoid outdoor exertion; everyone else, especially the elderly and children, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.
201 – 300
People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly, and children should avoid any outdoor activity; everyone else should avoid prolonged exertion.
People with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should avoid any outdoor activity; everyone else, especially the elderly and children, should limit outdoor exertion.
301 – 500
Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion; people with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly, and children should remain indoors.
Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion; people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should remain indoors.
* PM has two sets of cautionary statements, which correspond to the two sizes of PM that are measured:
• Particles up to 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5)
• Particles up to 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10)
• An AQI of 100 for PM2.5 corresponds to a PM2.5 level of 40 micrograms per cubic meter (averaged over 24 hours).
• An AQI of 100 for PM10 corresponds to a PM10 level of 150 micrograms per cubic meter (averaged over 24 hours).
According to yahoo answers; “Total Inhalable Dust: This is the fraction of airborne particles which enters the nose and mouth during normal breathing. It is made up of particles of 100 microns diameter and less. This dust fraction is required to be measured in many European jurisdictions.
Thoracic Dust: This is the fraction approximately 10 microns diameter and less. This is also referred to as the PM10 in the USA. This fraction will pass through the nose and throat, and reach into the lungs.
Respirable Dust: This fraction is the particles approximately 5 microns and less. It certainly penetrates into the gas exchange region of the lungs, and is therefore the most hazardous particulate size. This fraction is required to be measured in many European jurisdictions.
DUST IN THE WORKPLACE: For many nuisance type dusts the occupational limits are around 10mg/m3 for total dusts and 5 mg/m3 for respirable or PM10 dusts. These are normally measured with small air sampling pumps running for a number of hours, or a quick measure of relative dust levels can be obtained by using a light scattering dust meter.” http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090507152840AA8dl1N
So what have we learned from this section? We have learned that scientists have found a DIRECT link between more diseases and higher death rates when the particulate levels go up. These researchers have come up with a graph that illustrates this relationship. Again we are talking about just ordinary particulates, not radioactive and toxic heavy metal particulates and gases.
But now we can also start to see how and why the scientific evidence for the harm caused by nano radioactive particles such as cesium iodine, plutonium and uranium, plus 900 other ones, all released after a nuclear accident, in a massive INSIVIBLE cloud of particulates, may apply and be real, rather than imagined, as the nuclear apologists claim.
EXTREME DANGERS OF SPECIFIC NANO PARTICLES
According to the EPA, 200 micrograms of mercury would fit on the head of the sharp end of a pin. Now that is pretty small in terms of space. But examples exist of how a substance can be dangerous in very small amounts, and here is one example: “Two years ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a study, which showed that three-month-old babies exposed to just 63 micrograms of mercury — less than half of the aforementioned pin top — were two-and-a-half times more likely to develop autism. The study is stamped “Confidential” and “Do Not Copy or Release”. Siegel says it was never made public because it was just a draft.” http://www.halexandria.org/dward052.htm
Another way of looking at this sharp end of a pin is to use an electron microscope, which can look at the atomic structure of a substance. An electron microscope is used for nanotechnology, such as in the following example where Tom Newman took “the information on the page of a book and put it on an area 1/25,000 smaller in linear scale in such a manner that it can be read by an electron microscope,” (roughly the scale at which the entire Encyclopedia Britannica could squeeze onto the sharp end of a pin). http://www.halexandria.org/dward052.htm
So if it only takes 65 micrograms of thimerisol to cause autism, and it only takes some invisible small nano particles of man made dust to cause heart disease, heart attacks, and all kinds of other diseases including cancer. It now becomes much easier to see how something that may be much more toxic to human life could do the same thing in a dose that is approximately 100 times smaller than this… at .5 of a microgram of plutonium, and possibly even less.
If it is possible to see that three times as much amount of nitrogen monoxide (1.5 Micrograms) is inhaled in the form of particles in a typical cigarette inhale, it is easier to understand how a .5 Micograms of a floating nano particle sized dust mote of plutonium can also be inhaled easily. After all, we cannot see plutonium nano particles. We cannot hear them, smell them, taste them or even see them. There is no warning that the body gives us, if we are about to inhale a nano particle of radioactive plutonium, coming all the way from Fukushima, or any other nuclear accident for that matter.
Anytime a nuclear reactor has an accident, plutonium as well as hundreds of other radioactive nano particles are released in massive rivers of invisible radioactive gases and dust. So now let’s explore how that works and interview an expert on this subject, shall we?
HOT PLUTONIUM NANO PARTICLES
Arnie Gunderson is a nuclear expert that I will be ‘interviewing’ in this material via a CNN video. He will be talking about plutonium and other nano particles. Here is a small introduction about him.
Arnie Gunderson MS
Expertise; Bachelors and Masters Degree In Nuclear Engineering
Senior VP in nuclear industry
Has license to operate a nuclear plant
Holds a nuclear patent
First reactor he worked on was a Mark I reactor, later worked on Mark II and Mark III reactors.
Has had 300 people under him and has been in about 70 nuclear power plants in his career.
Gunderson talks about ‘hot’ particles in this video, where he explains the concept of nano particles further. In a CNN interview, Arnie talks about how dangerous ‘hot’ nano particles are that come out of nuclear reactor meltdowns.
Have you ever wondered why those workers and visitors at the plant are wearing full facemasks with very special, very fine air filters? These air filter masks are not just ordinary painting type filters. These filters are special air filtration systems designed to filter out these very small nano particles. They fit very tightly on the face, so as not to allow ANY air leaks, as the air around a leaking reactor complex like Fukushima is highly radioactive and full of floating nano particles, or radioactive ‘fuel fleas’.
Gunderson, in his CNN interview, says that the radiation after a nuclear accident initially comes out as a big cloud of (Noble) gases and radiation. But then what comes out of the reactor after that is something he calls radioactive ‘fuel fleas’. The term ‘fuel flea’ is the same thing as a a NANO PARTICLE of plutonium, cesium, iodine, or one of hundreds of other radioactive particles. They are too small to be picked up on a Geiger Counter, but they are there.
As long as these reactors are not covered in concrete and sealed from the air and as long as the spent fuel pools are open to the air at Fukushima, these toxic, radioactive nano particles of plutonium, uranium, cesium and other isotopes will be released into the global river of air. Since the Japanese do not seem to be concerned about covering these reactors and sealing them off, this river of radioactive ‘fuel fleas’ will continue to be pumped out potentially for hundreds of years.
Once they leak out of the broken reactors and spent fuel pools, these radioactive and toxic heavy metal particles ride the jet stream. They can then settle back down all around the globe, where we breathe them in.
Gunderson says that the average person breathes about 10 cubic meters of air in a day. These nano particles or fuel fleas are in the air, all around the globe. In the US, Gunderson reports that the average person breaths in about 5-10 of these nano radioactive particles per day, and in Japan ,they breathe in about 100 or more of these nano particles a day. Watch him talk about this specifically in his CNN interview here.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G23Ik5Xf1bk
Some people will argue that nano particles of plutonium will not hurt anyone, period…But what we have already learned is that small nano sized particles are classified by the EPA as hazardous to health, even WITHOUT radiation. So this argument makes the person who claims this look ignorant and illiterate.
So now lets add the fact that plutonium is a heavy metal, which is a poison all by itself, like mercury, only WORSE. Now we also have to add the radiation to it. If a plutonium nano particle gets into your bloodstream, or bone marrow, or liver, or testicles, or breast, it kills or damages the genes in the cells next to it, unlike mercury, which is just plain toxic and poisonous. This damage is what starts the cancer process in whatever part of the body it is in. If someone argues against this method of cancer initiation, send them to a cancer doctor, who will teach them all about the wide variety of methods of cancer promotion and initiation, including radioactive substances.
How can we logically think that this is NOT even more dangerous to health than just the average danger of small dust motes of lead, which are extremely hazardous in even very small quantities. …
According to the EPA; “Human exposure to lead occurs through a combination of inhalation and oral exposure, with inhalation generally contributing a greater proportion of the dose for occupationally exposed groups…. The NAAQS safety/action level for lead in the air is 0.15 µg/m3.” In other words, there cannot be more than one .15 micron sized nano particle per cubic meter of air, or it is considered a toxic place that needs to be cleaned up because it is hazardous to health. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/lead.html
Remember that 1 micron is one-millionth of a meter, which also equals 1 micrometer, and we are talking about how .5 of one micron particle is enough to be fatal to a human being.. So what size are the particles coming out of a radioactive accident or nuclear bomb blast? According to the Engineering Toolbox;
NANO PARTICLE – Size – Microns/Micrometers/uM
(all are the same or equivalent)
Radioactive Fallout 0.1 – 10
Atmospheric Dust 0.001 – 40
Lead Dust 2
Anthrax 1 – 5
For more examples, go to;
In this section, we have learned that Nano particles are dangerous, and the EPA as well as local county health authorities and air pollution boards have specific rules and warnings for particles in the air, separate from nuclear power accidents, which release large quantities of these radioactive nano particles.
According to experts like Gunderson, these radioactive nano particles go around the world, and everyone breathes them in. Remember that the fatal dose of plutonium can be .5 microns/micrometer/uM , and that amount is so small, it cannot be seen.
Further, we all breathe many particles in like this every day from Fukushima, some people more than others, depending on where the wind blows and how fine your air filter is, in your house or vehicle.
HOW FAR CAN THESE NANO PARTICLES TRAVEL?
To repeat; Gunderson says that the average person breathes about 10 cubic meters of air in a day. These nano particles or fuel fleas are in the air, all around the globe. In the US, Gunderson reports that the average person breathes in about 5-10 particles per day, and in Japan ,they breathe in about 100 or more of these nano particles a day. Watch his interview here if you have not already watched it… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G23Ik5Xf1bk
All sizes of particles are thrown up into the air after a nuclear ‘accident’.
Larger particles are things like radioactive fallout, soot, sand, sea spray, hail and snow. They are larger than 100 Microns/Micrometers/uM in diameter. They fall out of the air quickly and in nuclear accidents, these larger radioactive particles of cesium, iodine, strontium, uranium, and plutonium are what contaminate large areas with high levels of radioactivity, as these large particles fall out close to the source.
HAZARDOUS MEDIUM SIZED NANO PARTICLES
Medium particles are hazardous, because they bypass the normal filtering mechanism of the body. These Nano particles settle out more slowly, due to their smaller size and lighter weight. They include such things as radioactive nano particles, pollen, larger bacteria, dust, fly ash, coal dust, silt, pollen, and fine ice crystals during very cold weather. They tend to settle out of the air at about .2 meters per second or more. If these particles are thrown into the stratosphere during a nuclear explosion, one has to calculate jet stream velocity, versus settling velocity, and these particles can still travel great distances, given turbulence, jet streams and high altitude ejection from a nuclear explosion.
Particles under 10 Micron/Micrometer/uM have a special hazard classification and are called PM10 because they further down into the lungs than particles larger than 100 Micron/Micrometer/uM .
Particles under 5 Micron/Micrometer/uMs are have an even higher hazard classification because they go deeper into the lungs, and enter into the gas exchange area of the lungs.
SUPER HAZARDOUS SMALL NANO PARTICLES
< 1 Micron/Micrometer/uM
Small nano particles are made up of nano sized radioactive particles, viruses, small bacteria, fumes, radioactive and other gases, smoke, clay, and more.
Small nano particles are so small and lightweight, that they can take anywhere from forever, to days or years to settle out of the atmosphere. If the air is turbulent, they may never come down. If the air is quiet, they settle slowly out of the atmosphere, towards the ground.
If thrown up into the stratosphere by nuclear explosions, such as during the atomic bomb tests, or after an accident such as Fukushima or Chernobyl, these small radioactive nano particles may float in the air for MANY years before coming down inside of rain or snow, which may form around these small particles. Since these particles stay up in the upper atmosphere for many generations, anyone who flies in an airplane is flying through these clouds of radioactive nano particles.
The rain and/or snow may concentrate these radioactive particles, resulting in high radiation readings ONLY for rain or snow, on the other side of the planet, far away from the original release of radiation.. An example of this is a radiation reading take in February 2012, near the US East Coast. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tJqUaW2E_1w
HOT NANO PARTICLES AND BABIES, INFANTS, FETUSES
The dose of radioactive particles that will kill an adult male in the prime of life is different from what will cause disabling genetic damage in an egg, sperm, fetus or baby. A child is much more sensitive to the same dose of radiation than an adult male for example. Even a female is more sensitive than a male of the same age, given the same exposure to a radioactive substance.
To have a full discussion about the dangers of nano particle sized plutonium floating around in the air globally, being breathed in by all ages, sexes and health conditions, we need to look at all of these areas, not just the effect of plutonium on healthy, adult, older males, who are much less affected, both by radiation and by toxins such as plutonium. Ignoring everyone except for adult male nuclear workers when it comes to plutonium is definitely NOT scientific.
Even the MOST conservative researchers who downplay the danger and avoid calculating risk for babies, fetuses, children and dangers posed by constant low level exposure as well as the multiple cancer causing routes (other than lung cancer) admit that “the 2 million fatalities per pound inhaled leaves plutonium dust far from “the most toxic substance known to man.”
Biological agents, like botulism toxin or anthrax spores are many hundreds or thousands of times more toxic. Plutonium toxicity is similar to that of nerve gas, but given the choice of being in a room with equal quantities of plutonium dust and nerve gas, the latter would be infinitely more dangerous.” Chapter 13 Plutonium and Bombs http://www.phyast.pitt.edu/~blc/book/chapter13.html
To contrast this rather conservative radiation expert, the official and very scientifically valid CERRIE Majority Report says that radiation dose is meaningless, and this applies to both cesium and plutonium. According to the report: “there are important concerns with respect to the heterogeneity of dose delivery within tissues and cells from short-range charged particle emissions, the extent to which current models adequately represent such interactions with biological targets, and the specification of target cells at risk. Indeed, the actual concepts of absorbed dose become questionable, and sometimes meaningless, when considering interactions at the cellular and molecular levels.” (CERRIE Majority Report Chapter 2.1 paragraph 11). http://www.llrc.org/wobblyscience/subtopic/dosemeaningless4.htm#ref1
Again, we have scientists who have looked at all radioactive substances, including those that emit alpha, beta and gamma radiation, and they are telling us via this report that ALL of these radioactive substances have a negative effect on our health, via the internal exposure mechanism.
Internal radiation when it is lodged in the lungs or absorbed into the blood, plasma, bones, muscles, organs or glands is MUCH different than ANY exposure to external radiation. Internal radiation from something radioactive lodged inside the body is also different from swallowing something radioactive which then passes through the gut and is then expelled in most cases.
To summarize; we have learned how dangerous nano sized particles are. We have also learned how extra layers of danger are added on by radiation inside the body, compared to outside radiation exposure.
PLUTONIUM IS DANGEROUS FOR 800 MILLION YEARS
There are over 20 radioactive isotopes of Plutonium. The half life of radioactive Plutonium 244 is 80.0 million years, (meaning it will last over 800 million years before it decays into something else). The other radioactive plutoniums have half lives of 373,000 years, for a total of 3.7 Million years, and plutonium 239, with a half life of 24,110 years, for a total of 240,000 years. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium
TYPES OF RADIATION COMING OUT OF PLUTONIUM
Depending on the type of radioactive plutonium, it either emits Alpha radiation (Plutonium 244), while decaying into Uranium. Plutonium 241 emits Beta radiation or electrons as it decays into radioactive Americium.
Can a Geiger Counter detect Plutonium? http://youtu.be/wY5pPkoCgiM
“Plutonium-239, the isotope found in the spent MOX fuel, is much more radioactive than the depleted Uranium-238 in the spent fuel coming out of nuclear reactors.
Since some forms of plutonium emit alpha radiation, a highly ionizing form of radiation, it makes plutonium much more dangerous than other radioactive isotopes that emit beta or gamma radiation. Alpha radiation exposure is not so dangerous because this radiation can be stopped by skin. Thus most nuclear apologists ignore alpha emitting isotopes when calculating health risks and death risks.
The danger from isotopes such as plutonium, is that when alpha-emitters get inside cells, as they do, then the Alpha rays cause 10-10,000 times more damage to surrounding chromosomes than a beta or gamma radiation emitting particle. We all know that chromosome damage is what starts the cancer growing process.
HOW PLUTONIUM ACTS IN THE HUMAN BODY
According to Dr. Helen Caldicott MD, radioactive plutonium does get out into the environment after an ‘accidental’ release. It is absorbed by the human body or bypasses the protective mechanisms in the lungs and nose as tiny nano particles that go straight into the bloodstream.
Once in the environment, it then it acts like iron for human bodies, which the body then absorbs and tries to use. Radioactive plutonium that the body thinks is iron is stored in the liver. Radioactive plutonium also goes to bone marrow, where iron normally goes to help form bone marrow. Once stored in these places, Dr. Caldicott says that radioactive plutonium causes bone cancer, leukemia, cancers and other genetic diseases. Radioactive plutonium also crosses the plancenta barrier, thus affecting eggs, fetuses and babies.
“According to the Environmental Protection Agency, plutonium enters the bloodstream via the lungs, then moves throughout the body and into the bones, liver, and other organs. It generally stays in those places for decades, subjecting surrounding organs and tissues to a continual bombardment of alpha radiation and greatly increasing the risk of cancer, especially lung cancer, liver cancer and bone sarcoma.”http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1222-plutonium-more-dangerous-uranium.html
THE DANGERS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE
Humanity has only been around for 100,000 years total. The Bible is only 2,000 years old. The pyramids are 5,000 years old. We do not have any good records of how or why the pyramids were built. What if they were designed and built to house some deadly diseases? What chance do we have 5,000 years later, to know that reason and avoid those pyramids? Can you imagine guarding something and passing this knowledge on about how dangerous something is for 800 MILLION YEARS? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_humanity
What is the logic of heating water with plutonium heating water and creating steam for 30 years? After that, humans have to guard this dangerous, toxic and highly radioactive waste for 800 million years. We mortal and mistake prone humans who create FUBARS and wars by the ton, have to keep highly radioactive and toxic plutonium safe from terrorists who might make a weapon that will kill millions or billions of people for 800 MILLION years. What chance is there that NOTHING will go wrong with this radioactive waste for 800 million years, and that everything will go perfectly right for that whole time?
HOW WE ALL GET EXPOSED TO PLUTONIUM OR OTHER RADIATION
The film was approved for PBS national broadcast in 1985, but that decision was rejected a year later. Independent producers alleged censorship.B.J.Bullert commented that the PBS/KQED decision “robbed a national public television audience” . He extrapolates this critical remark to the media across the board and its failure to focus public attention on the putative biological hazard of nuclear power.
Regardless, the film is available today via PBS’ POV (“Documentaries with a point of view”), which summarizes the film’s thesis as “The Bomb is killing ordinary Americans, even in the absence of a nuclear war.”
Mycle Schneider Mycle Schneider (pronounce Michael, /?ma?k?l/) (born 1959 in Cologne) is a nuclear energy consultant based in Paris, and lead author of The World Nuclear Industry Status Reports. In 1997 he received the Right Livelihood Award. For more details around his biography, see; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycle_Schneider
Mycle Schneider reports that “Plutonium separation also means the largest radioactive emissions in the overall nuclear fuel chain and has significant contribution to the collective global dose (of radiation),” Schneider said.
In fact, reprocessing plants in France and the U.K. have been disposing of radioactive emissions into the ocean. One of the radioactive materials, iodine 129, has been found on the northern Norwegian coast and the Baltic Sea, according to Riso National Laboratory in Denmark.
Some 4 tons of iodine 129 had been discharged by the reprocessing plants by 2004 and the concentration of iodine 129 in the Baltic Sea in 2000 was 1,000 times higher than before nuclear energy existed. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20081127f1.html
New York Times : US Govt Concedes Plutonium Workers Suffered Illness, Death
“10 trillion becquerels per hour of radiation currently being released from Fukushima plant: Researcher (VIDEO) August 18, 2011?
So what is it? 76,000,000,000,000 (76 trillion)so far, or, 240,000,000,000,000 (10 triliion per hour) every day?
NUMBER OF DEATHS PREDICTED FROM PLUTONIUM RELEASED AT FUKUSHIMA
We know for a fact that tens of tons of uranium was launched and aerosolized, mostly from reactor 3 explosion. And we know that reactor 3 used MOX fuel which is uranium mixed with plutonium. And we know that all used fuel contains plutonium.
We know that at LEAST hundreds of pounds of plutonium were launched and aerosolized from Fukushima.
The proof is laid out quite clearly here.
Fukushima had approximately 150x as much fuel on site vs. chernobyl unit 4. About 1/3 of the Fuku fuel is very likely to have burned so far . The rest is waiting to burn. Only unit 4 burned at Chernobyl – the other reactors continued to operate after the disaster for many years.
Chernobyl unit 4 was a brand new reactor – 3 months old at the time of the accident. No spent fuel was available to burn. This means, even though the fuel was probably hotter than much of Fukushima fuel – it didn’t have much fission generated plutonium, either. Additionally a good percentage of Chernobyl’s radiation got contained by the “tomb” built over the reactor in just a few months after the disaster.
To the contrary, Japan has left Fukushima wide open to leak radiation into the environment. despite huge efforts to keep the fuel cool, they’ve made no effort whatsoever to control the releases of radiation if that is insufficient, which it has been.
So we’ve got 150X the fuel, more plutonium and a much bigger percentage of release – I multiply the fuel quantity by 3.5X for those factors to get that 500X figure above. Even if you just go with the 150X number it’s still a very big release.
Source: A Green Road